[英文文法] 分詞

分詞是動狀詞的最後一種,它由動詞演化而來,根據及物和不及物兩種動詞和時態上的不同,可區分為「現在分詞」和「過去分詞」兩種,及物動詞所演化的現在分詞有進行、主動的意味,過去分詞則有完成、被動的意味;然須注意的是,由不及物動詞所演化而成的過去分詞,只有完成的意思。分詞在句子中的角色和動名詞一樣都很單純,前一節提過動名詞在句子中的角色是名詞;而本結的重點分詞在句子中的角色則為形容詞。
一、分詞的時態

及物動詞演化而成的分詞(舉write為例)


主動態 被動態
現在分詞 writting being written
過去分詞
written
完成分詞 having written have been written

不及物動詞所演化而成的分詞(舉go為例)(不及物動詞沒有受詞何來被動態?)


主動態
現在分詞 going
過去分詞 gone
完成分詞 having gone


二、分詞的形式

 1. 分詞作形容詞:(指形容詞的限定用法)

例:boiling water

例:a dancing building

例:the rising sun

例:a broken glass

例:boiled water

例:a well-known author

例:The girl writing the letter is Mary.
    S     adj.   Vi  SC

例:Anyone wishing to leave early may do so.
   S      adj.       Vt   O

例:The food being eaten was prepared by me.
    S    adj.   be vt(pp)  adv可省

例:This is the book written by him.
    S Vi  SC    adj.

例:We can see a high mountain covered with snow
   S  Vt     O      adj.
 2. 分詞作補語(指形容詞的敘述用法)

例:John came running.
   S   V  SC

例:He lay sleeping.
   S  Vi  SC

例:It kept raining for two days.
  S  Vi   SC   adv

例:I saw him coming.
  S Vt O  OC

例:He kept me waiting.
   S Vt O  OC

例:I can’t have you doing that.
  S  Vt   O  OC

例:We were surprised to hear the news.
   S  Vi  SC    adv

例:They got married.
   S Vi   SC

注意married(adj.)已婚的,有配偶的

例:The old man seemed satisfied.
     S    Vi  SC

注意satisfied(adj.)感到滿意的,滿足的

例:I founded him wounded.
  S  Vt  O  SC

注意wounded(adj.)受傷的


三、分詞構句

分詞構句兼有「形容詞片語」和「副詞子句」的性質,在句子中用來修飾主要子句,是為分詞構句。分詞構句的目的,是為了使句子精簡,因此分詞實具有副詞子句中連接詞、主詞、動詞三種角色。

注意:分詞構句的過程:去連接詞、去主詞、動詞依其時態改正確的分詞。

 1. 一般分詞構句

主要子句和副詞子句或對等子句的主詞一致時

例:When he arrived at the station, he found the train had left already.
   連 S  Vi   adv   S  Vt    N-clause
分詞構句:Arriving at the station, he found the train had left already
     分片語修飾主要子句  S  Vt    N-clause
例:After I had finished my work, I went home
      S   Vt   O   S  Vt   O

分詞構句:Having finished my work, I went home.
         分詞片語    S Vt  O

例:As I was poor, I could not afford to buy books.
  連 S  Vi SC S   Vt      O

分詞構句:Being poor, I could not afford to buy books.
      分詞片語 S   Vt      O

例:As I had nothing to do, I went out for a walk.
  連 S  Vt  O  adj  S  Vi adv adv

分詞構句:Having nothing to do, I went out for a walk.

例:As she did not know what to do, she began crying.
  連 S   Vt    N片語  S Vt   O

分詞構句:Not knowing what to do, she began crying.
        分詞片語      S   Vt  O

例:As they had lived in China for many years, they could speak Chinese well.
  連 S   Vi   adv    adv    S   Vt    O   adv

分詞構句:Having lived in China for many years, they could speak Chinese well.
            分詞片語       S   Vt    O  adv

例:As we live a long way from town, we rarely have visitors
  連  S Vt   O   adv    S adv Vt   O

分詞構句:Living a long way from town, we rarely have visitors.   
          分詞片語     S adv  Vt  O

例:I stood there and waited for her.  
  S  V1  adv 連 V2  介  O

分詞構句:I stood there, waiting for her.   
     S   Vi adv  分詞片語

例:The train left Taipei at 9 p.m. and reached Kaohsiung next morning.
    S   V1  O  adv    連   V2   O     adv

分詞構句:The train left Taipei at 9 p.m, reaching Kaohsiung next morning.
       S  Vt O  adv        分詞片語


 2. 獨立分詞構句

主要子句和副詞子句或對等子句的主詞不一致時,分詞前的主詞不可省略。

  一般獨立分詞片語(一般具有表示原因、目的等等的連接詞)

例:Because the school was over, they went home.
    連   S1   Vi SC  S2 Vt  O
獨立分詞構句:The school being over, they went home.
          獨立分詞片語  S   Vt   O

例:Because the weather was bad, I stayed at home.
    連   S1   Vi  SC S2 V  介 O

獨立分詞構句:The weather being bad, I stayed at home
          獨立分詞片語     S Vt  介 O

例:Because there was nothing to do, I went home.
    連  S1 Vi  SC adj S2  Vt   O

獨立分詞構句:There being nothing to do, I went home.
          獨立分詞片語   S  Vt  O

例:Because the moon had risen, we put out the light.
    連   S1   Vi   S2  Vi 介  O

獨立分詞構句:The moon having risen, we put out the light.  
         獨立分詞片語   S  Vi 介  O

  特殊獨立分詞片語(用with開頭的獨立分詞片語)

例:With all our money gone, we could not but beg our way home.
     獨立分詞片語   S    Vt      O

例:With age creeping on him, he was not as energetic as he used to be.
     獨立分詞片語   S  Vi  adv adj.   連  S Vi   adv
注意:分詞構句是為了精簡句子,能省則盡量省略,但有時候為使主要子句和副詞子句的關係更為明確,也會加連接詞。

例:Though I lived near his house, I seldom see him.
   連  S Vi 介   O  S adv  Vt O

分詞構句:Though living near his house, I seldom see him.
          分詞片語    S adv  Vt O
       

四、慣用獨立分詞片語
  1. Generally speaking
  2. Judging from
  3. Strictly speaking
  4. Considering
  5. Speaking of

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