[英文文法] 英文五大動詞句型

一、及物動詞(Vt):後面必須緊接受詞的動詞稱之。

 〈一〉完全及物動詞:動詞後緊接受詞就能完整表達語意者。

   主動態:S+Vt+O(受詞形式:N/Ving動名詞/名詞片語/名詞子句/不定詞)

例:I ate the apple.
  S Vt  O

例:I like reading.
  S Vt  O

例:We know [where he lives.]
   S  Vt    N-clause

例:I know [what to do.]
       N片語

例:I like to eat apples.
  S Vt   to V


   被動態:S+be Vt+(介系詞+N/Ving)
           (p.p)

注意:若介+N用以表示副詞,則可有可無,位置不限;若表示受詞,則不可以省略
   (用Ving的形式表受詞是相當常見的方式

例:The apple was eaten (by me.)
    S  be vt(pp)  adv.(可省略)
 →(By me,) the apple was eaten.

例:He was not used to walking very long distances.
  S  be vt(pp) 介 Ving    adv

例:I am opposed to going shopping with others.
  S be vt(pp)  介  Ving      adv

例:The man was accused of killing his wife.
    S  be vt(PP)  介  Ving

例:This book [is related] to our issue.
    S  be vt(pp) 介  N.
 主動態→The issue relates this book.
       S   vt   O.

例:The letter is chiefly concerned with export commodities.
    S    be vt(pp)     介    N.

例:Good students are exempted from attending study hall.
    S     be vt(pp)  介    Ving


 〈二〉不完全及物動詞:後面緊接受詞後,仍無法完整表達語意,因此受詞後加以「受詞補語」使語意完整。

   主動態:S+不Vt+O+OC(N/adj→分詞也是形容詞/to V/Ving)[皆可當受詞補語]

此類常見的動詞可分三類:

 A: 表想法、認為、想像、猜測之類的動詞
  think, suppose, conceive, feel, consider, guess, believe, say……

 B: 表感官的動詞
  watch, see, oberve, perceive, hear, smell, touch……

 C: 表假設、要求、命令、需要之類的動詞
  make, have, let(使役動詞),want, require, need, hope, expect……

以下就常見之受詞補語舉例之: S+Vt+O+OC

S+Vt+O+N
例:They made him a soldier.
 →A soldier was made (by me.)

S+Vt+O+adj
例:Keep your mouth clean.

S+Vt+O+to V
例:The teacher encouraged students to study hard.

此類動詞須牢記,尚有:tell, persuade, order, warn, advice, remind, help+O+to V S+Vt+O+子句→OC

例:He has made me [what I am today.]
  S   Vt  O N-clause作受詞

  被動態:S+be VtSC+(介+N)
          (p.p)    主補


 〈三〉授與動詞:授與動詞最大的特色是動詞後面有兩個受詞。(間接受詞O1/直接受詞O2

  主動態:S+授Vt+人+物

  主動態:S+授Vt+物+介+人

  被動態:人+be 授Vt+(介+N)
          (p.p)

  被動態:物+be 授Vt+介+人
          (p.p)

此類動詞常見的有:

Give, lend, send, write, bring, hand, pass, deliver, show, teach, tell, sell, pay, owe, do. Promise, offer
to
Buy, bring, get, leave, make, do
for
ask
of
play
On


例:I lend some money to John.
  S Vt   物    介 人
 →I lend John some money.
  S Vt  人   物
 →Some money was lent to John (by me.)
    物   be vt(pp) 介 人 adv.

例:Get the ball for me, please.
   Vt   物   介 人

例:I must ask a favor of you.
  S Vt    物  介  人

例:They played a trick on him.
   S  Vt  物  介  人


二、不及物動詞(Vi):這類動詞後面不得加受詞。若欲加受詞,也不能直接在後面加受詞,須用「介+N」的形式。

 〈一〉完全不及物動詞:不用受詞就能完整表達語意者。

   第一種主動態S+Vi(不加受詞的情況)

例:Flowers bloom.
   S Vi

例:Something (happened) last night.
    S     Vi    adv.可省

此類經典動詞有: happen, occur, arise, rise, emerge, appear, disappear


  第二種主動態:S+Vi+N(加受詞的情況)

注意:介+N表副詞可省略,表受詞則不可以省略;此外後面的受詞常以動名詞或不定詞方式呈現。

例:That sort of thing varies [from person to person].(因人而異)
      S    Vi  介    N

例:The temperature ranges between 30 and 40 degrees centigrade.
      S    Vi   介        N

例:No one objected to the plan.
   S   Vi  介  N

例:Parents objected to punishing their children.
    S   Vi  介  Ving 形式作受詞

例:We look forward to seeing you next time.
   S   Vi    介 Ving 形式作受詞


 〈二〉不完全不及物動詞:這類動詞後面不加受詞,但是語意尚未完整,因此於動詞之後緊接主詞補語,以完整表達語意

   第一種主動態S+Vi+SC不加受詞的情況

首先討論動詞,不完全不及物動詞又稱連繫動詞,分類如下:

A表連綴seem, look, appear, feel, sound, taste, smell
+SC
B狀態be, keep, lie, stand, remain
C變化過程become, grow, get, turn, make


例:This idea sounds very good.
    S   Vi   SC

例:This candy tasted good.
    S    Vi  SC

再者,主詞補語的型態多變,可為adjto V 

以下就主詞補語之不同型態舉例之:

S+Vi+N(Ving形式)

例:I haven't finished reading the book yet.
   S   Vi     Ving形式作補語

此類動詞尚有:

finish, quit, deny, consider, give up, suggest, avoid, recommend, postpone, delay, enjoy, propose…… +Ving

S+Vi+adj

例:He appears ill.
  S  Vi   adj.

例:It seems correct.
  S  Vi  adj.

S+Vi+to V

例:I wish to go, but my mother wishes me to stay at home.
  S Vi  toV 連   S   Vt   O   OC  adv

此類動詞尚有:

wish, hope, choose, plan, learn, agree,
fail, refuse, promise, help……
+to V

以上兩種主詞補語都能使用的動詞列於下:

like, love, hate, prefer, begin,
start, continue……
+Ving/to V


   第二種主動態:S+Vi+SC+介+N(有受詞的情況)

例:He is proud of his wealth.
  S Vi  SC  介  N

例:He is eager for knowledge.
  S Vi  SC 介  N

例:”Souris opposite tosweet”.
   S  Vi  SC   介  N

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時間迴廊~台灣100年

老美鏡頭下的早期臺灣中部