[英文文法] 形容詞

一、限定用法:在所要修飾的名詞的前面後面直接修飾者稱之。

A前位修飾:在名詞前面加修飾詞,為最單純的修飾方法。

例:her two pretty new English teachers
       adj       N

例:those six strong young man
       adj     N

B後位修飾:在名詞或代名詞後面加修飾詞,有以下幾種用法:

1. Something, anything, nothing, body, one+adj

例:something new
    pron. adj.

例:nothing important
    pron.  adj.

例:things Chinese
   N  adj.

例:(no one) else
   adj. prop. adj.

只能做限定用法的形容詞,務必牢記:
former, latter, inner, outer, main, upper, wooden, golden, druken, beaten, very, mere, only, live, utmost, certain, utter, spare
2. N+adj片語

注意:有形容詞作用的片語通稱形容詞片語,所以介系詞片語分詞片語不定詞片語皆包含於其中〉

例:a man of honor
   N  介系詞片語作形容詞用

例:the painting on the wall
     N  介系詞片語作形容詞用

例:a girl with brown eyes
   N  介系詞片語作形容詞用

例:the man (who is) sitting behind you
    N      分詞片語作形容詞用

例:the cake (that was) made by my sister
     N       分詞片語作形容詞用

例:food to eat
    N  不定詞片語作形容詞用

例:water to drink
   N  不定詞片語作形容詞用

3. N+adj子句

注意:子句是完整的句子,有其所屬的動詞。

例:The boy who is wearing glasses is my brother.
   S(N)     adj子句     Vi  SC

例:This is the house where he lived in.
    S Vi  SC     adj子句
二、敘述用法:用補語的方式修飾。(補語有分主詞補語受詞補語)S.+Vt+O.+OC

1. 做主詞補語﹝此類佔大多數﹞

例:She is pretty.  
     S  Vi  SC(adj)

例:They look alike.
      S   Vi  SC(adj)

例:They look [like superstar].
     Vi  介  N

例:He was alone in the house.
     S  Vi  SC(adj)   adv
2. 做受詞補語﹝極少數﹞

例:I found her absent
  S Vt O OC(adj)

有些形容詞只有敘述用法,如下:
afraid, alike, alive, alone, asleep, ashamed, aware, awake, allergic, unable, worth, well, sure, content, contented, ill……

注意alone也可以有限定用法,但只能做後位修飾。

例:The kid alone is crying (over there).
   S   adj.  Vi    adv.

  
三、關係代名詞:關係代名詞也是形容詞的一種表達形式,它其實屬於上述的「限定用法」中,但是因為結構複雜,因此別立而出。

1. N﹝主格關代+不完整子句→缺主詞﹞
N+who/ that/ which/ whose+N/+V+......(結構缺主詞,因為關代代了主詞)

注意:主格關代皆可以省略﹝whose+N不能且關代後不是動詞也不能省略﹞,把動詞改成「分詞」,而分詞的型態取決於主動或被動,切記,跟動詞的時態一點關係也沒有;再者,主格關代省略之後若只剩下分詞,則可以放在名詞的前面當作前位修飾。

例:An aberration is some property of a lens or a curved mirror which impairs(=impairing) its abilities to form a perfect image.                           

例:[Unlike other scientists (who pioneer(=pioneering) in the field of photovoltaic)], John Sallinger started at a very early age.

例:Geometry generalizes certain basic principles that govern(=governing) the calculation of various shapes.

例:Among all factors (influencing the agricultural yields), weather is the one (which affects(=affecting) farmers the most).                                          

例:During the rock concert, the singers [whose function was to involve the audience] were successful.

例:Those (who are encouraged(=couraged(被動用過去分詞)) to be independent and responsible in childhood) are likely to be more ambitious.

例:The forests of the island of Madagascar shelter species, which relate(=relating) those of region, were formerly several single pieces of landmass.

例:According to the investigation of GATT, reserves od oil which is known(=known) will be sufficient for the twenty-first century.

因為變成分詞後,後面已是主要子句,所以可江known提到名詞前便成限定用法的前位修飾,如下:
According to the investigation of GATT, known reserves of oil will be sufficient for the tewnty-first century.

例:Known deposit of tin can provide the world’s need for hundreds of years in the approximate of the earth scientists.

常出現的錯誤:
Journalists are prople who are engaged in reporting all what happens around the world.
若放all,則後面應該用形容詞子句;不放all,後面的what所連接的就是名詞子句。

2. N﹝受格關代+不完整子句→缺受詞﹞ 
N+whom/ that/ which/ whose+N/+V+......(結構缺受詞,因為關代代了受詞)

受格關代的省略狀況如主格關代。

例:Of all the European cities, Paris is the one [which tourists like to visit most].

注意visit是及物動詞,因此which是受格關代。

例:Robin Williams is an actor whom people think to be the best in the field of film industry.
(think後面缺受詞,whom擔任受格關代的角色)

例:Children exposed to large amounts of violence on TV may become temporarily more offensive, which results in more criminals whom we think to be the cource of terrorism.
(think後面缺受詞,whom擔任受格關代的角色)
3. N+介系詞+關係代名詞(只有whichwhom兩種)+完整子句

介係詞的選用情況一:
介係詞的選用必須取決於形容詞子句中動詞應該搭配的語意來判斷。

例:By tracing the eye of a typhoon, weather forcasyers can determine the speed at which a typhoon is moving.
介係詞的選用情況二:
介係詞如果前面的名詞是關於地點、原因、方法、時間,則必須選用適當的介係詞,而且介係詞+關代可以分別改為where, why, how, when

注意:用介係詞加關代較能表達語意,有時候換成關係副詞反而失去你要表達的實際意義。

例:This is the place at / in which I met her.
 →This is the place where I met her.

例:This is the reason for which I met her.
 →This is the reason why I met her.

例:This is the way by / with / in which I met her.
 →This is the way how I met her.

例:This is the time on / at / during which I met her.
 →This is the time when I met her.

例:The chief factor for which he works inefficiently is still doubted.
 →The chief factor why he works inefficiently is still doubted.
請比較差異:The chief factor for his inefficient work is still doubted.

例:Taiwan is a country in which there are plenty of delicious food.
 →Taiwan is a country where there are pleny of delicious food.

例:John is my best friend from whom I always borrow money.

例:Since 1967, Caladesi Island has been a part of Florida’s park system for which archeological researchers are looking.


形容詞的重要句型

以下所要談的句型,是就形容詞之「敘述用法」而言。

●在五大動詞句型中,不完全不及物動詞的句型為:

S+不ViSCto V
(※注意:不定詞在此扮演的角色是副詞)

be+adj+to V

例:I am glad to see you.
  S Vi  SC toV表副詞

例:She is afraid to walk in the dark.
    S  Vi SC toV表副詞

例:I am eager to do it.
  S Vi SC toV表副詞

例:English is not difficult to learn.
    S   Vi   SC  toV表副詞

例:It is possible to do that.
  S Vi SC  toV表副詞

例:He was stupid to make such a mistake.
  S Vi   SC  to V表副詞

如以上用法之形容詞尚有:
Glad, delighted, happy, pleased, afraid, anxious, eager, surprised, sorry, disappointed, ready, willing, certain, able, unable, likely, difficult, easy, dangerous, impossible, good, bad, kind, right, wrong, honest, polite, impolite, clever, wise, unwise, stupid, foolish, careless, careful……
  
●五大動詞時曾說過,不及物動詞本不加受詞,但若要加受詞,必須用介+N的方式,此時介+N不是副詞,所以不能省略。

S+Vi+SC+介+N
        (受詞角色,不可省略)

S+Vi+adj+介+N

例:I am fond of music.
   S  Vi  SC +N表受詞

例:Don’t be jealous of other people’s success.
      Vi  SC  +N表受詞

例:I am sure of it.
  S Vi  SC  +N表受詞

例:He is angry with his brother.
  S Vi  SC  +N表受詞

例:She is anxious about her daughter.
    S  Vi SC   +N表受詞
此類形容詞相當重要,每個都要牢記,尚有:
be afraid of 害怕 be angry with 對某人發怒
be fond of 喜歡 be anxious about 關懷,擔心
be jealous of 忌妒 be anxious for 切望,渴望,焦慮
be proud of 以~為榮 be eager for 切望,渴望
be sure of
(be certain of)
確信某事 be good for 有益於
be different from 不同於 be bad for 有害於
be angry at 對某事發怒 be good to 厚待~
be polite to 對~有禮貌 be kind to 對~何善
be sorry for 對~婉惜,因~抱歉 be grateful(thankful) to sb. 感謝某人
be responsible for st. 對某事負責任 be opposite to 與~相反
be contrary to 與~相反,矛盾 be ashamed of 以~為恥
be interested in 對~感興趣 be surprised at 對~感到驚奇
be pleased at 對某事喜歡 be pleased with 對某人喜歡
be content(ed) with 對~滿足 be satisfied with 對~滿足
be crowded with 擠滿了~ be filled with 裝滿了~
be full of 充滿了~


●可以用子句補充說明。 
S+Vi+SC+子句

例:I am glad (that you have come).
  S Vi  SC    子句

例:He is afraid (that he may fail).
  S  Vi SC    子句
形容詞的破格

 the+adj=複數N

例:the rich 富者

例:the wise and the foolish 賢者和愚者

例:the strong and the weak 強者和弱者

例:the young 青年

例:the learned 有學問的人

of抽象名詞=adj片語

例:a man (of honor) 正直的人

例:a man (of wisdom) 賢者

例:of great value 很有價值的

worthworthy的用法:
一般的句子在SC後面若要接受詞,必須用介+N的方式,但是worth卻可以直接加受詞在後面

例:It is worth seeing.
  S Vi  SC   

例:It is worth one hundred dollars.
  S Vi  SC     
worthy是一般的adj,後面接受詞時,必須用介+N的方式完成。

例:It is worthy of seeing. (be worthy of+受)
  S Vi  SC  +N表受詞

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