[英文文法] 動詞時態以及其被動語態

在我們所熟知的中文文法中,動詞的變化不分時態,例如beV的「是」,不論現在、過去,或未來,都用「是」;但在英文中卻因為敘述時間的不同而使動詞產生奇妙的變化(is/was/been),動詞的變化代表的是敘述情節的重要關鍵,因為聽者和講者必須在時態上有共同的連結,才能完整表達語意。英文以現在式、過去式,以及未來式為主軸各開分出四種時態,因此共有十二種。
一、現在式

 現在簡單式:最常用來表示例行的事務、狀態、動作或不變的真理和格言。

  主動態:Vs/Ves

  被動態:be+Vpp

例:John teaches English.

例:Mary goes to church on Sundays.

例:The earth is round.

例:When certain catalyst is added in chemical reaction the speed of reaction process will increase.

例:Are you taught Japanese at school?

例:Chinese is used by Chinese.

注意:表示時間條件副詞子句中,用現在式代替未來式。

例:He will visit you when he comes tomorrow.

例:If it is fine tomorrow, he will come.

例:I will have my Thanksgiving Holiday spent on the home right after I complete my final exam.

例:Unless the economic in USA prosperously improves next year, all the residents will face a big financial hazard in the future.
 現在進行式:用以表示正在進行的動作;不久將發生的動作;經常反覆的動作

  主動態:be+Ving

  被動態:be+being+Ving

例:It is raining now.

例:He is arriving tonight.

例:We are leaving on Thursday.

例:We are getting married in May.

例:He is dying.

例:I am going to do it tomorrow.(be going to表示意向打算,或不久後可能發生的事

例:How long are you going to stay in Taipei?(打算在台北待多久?)

例:What is Mary going to five John?(Mary打算送John什麼?)

例:It’s going to be a fine day tomorrow.(明天將會是晴天)

例:They are always quarrelling.

例:She is always wasting money.

例:I am being taught English by him.

例:I am being taken to the theater (by the Smiths) tonight.

 現在完成式:現在完成式最重要的就是有一個以現在為「ending point」的關鍵,以表達截至現在為止動作的完成;過去到現在為止的動作狀態;截至目前為止的經驗

  主動態havehas+Vpp

  被動態havehasbeen+Vpp

例:I have just finished it.

例:He has had lunch. have lunch

┌例:Think (what you have done) in the past.(想想你以前做過的事)
└例:Think what you did yesterday.(想想你昨天做的事)

例:Have you read the newspaper today?

例:We have had little rain this year.

例:He has come back now.

例:Have you seen him lately?

例:He has lived here since he was born.

例:I haven’t seen her for a long time.

例:He has been ill for a week.(表示生病到現在都沒好
例:He was ill for a week.(表示過去生病,但現在好了

例:It hasn’t rained for more than a month.

例:Have you ever been in HK before?

例:Has he ever been to Japan?

例:He has gone to Japan.(他去了日本,且人在日本
例:He has been to Japan.(他曾經去過日本

例:Jose. H. Vitaro left Europe when he was in his early teens and he hasn’t seen his parents for thirty years.

例:For many decades, commercial U.S. agricultural has been beset by chronic problems.

例:Since the 1930s, anthropology has been considered more directly related to the social science.

例:We haven’t been told (what has happened).

例:Have the letters been written?

例:Are you going to see the movie to night?
   助+主+動

例:Do you get up early?

例:Have you seen him lately?

例:All of his money has been stolen.

例:Since 1900, the government of some mid-European nations have been devoted to solving the housing problems from which people suffered.

注意現在完成式常常和since+一段時間+ago/指定的時間;for+一段時間
 現在完成進行式:表是從過去一直持續到現在,且還會一直繼續的動作或狀態。

  主動態:have/has+been+Ving

  被動態:無

例:How long have you been studying English?

例:Mr. Lin has been teaching in the school since 1950.

例:Is has been raining since three days ago.

例:Have they been waiting for me long?

例:What has she been doing?


二、過去式

 過去簡單式:表示過去的事實、動作、狀態、經驗或習慣,並不影響現在,只是陳述一個過去的事情

  主動態Ved

  被動態waswereVpp

例:In 1800, the forerunners of ancient Egyptian people indulged themselves in the solution of [how the pyramids impacted them].1800那一整年的動作)

例:What did you have for breakfast?

問:助+主+主動

例:Do you get up at bam?
例:Did you get up at bam?

例:Did you ever meet him?

例:He often came to see me.

例:He used to take a walk in the morning.

例:The American Automobile Association was founded in 1902 to coordinate the activities of various local organizations of motorists.

例:Mrs. Davis’ only son was born two years ago.

例:The book was written in English.

例:Where they killed by him?

例:Bill and Mary were not invited to the party.
 過去進行式:表示過去「某時」正在進行的動作;過去某時的意圖或計畫。

  主動態waswereVing

  被動態waswere+being+Vpp

 ※注意:在過去式中同一時間所發生的兩件事,其一使用過去進行式其一使用過去簡單式

例:It was raining when we started.

例:Jammine was doing (what he had been asked to complete) when her mother returned home from work.

例:He was going out when I arrived.

例:I was reading a letter when he came in.

例:We were living in Tainan then.(那時)

例:Is was getting darker.

例:Tom told me that [they were coming before long].(不久後)

例:We were being taught English by him.

例:The car was not being driven carefully.
 過去完成式:關鍵點在於動作或經驗完結於過去的某一個時間點。

  主動態hadVpp

  被動態:had+been+Vpp

例:Before I graduated from N.T.U., the states was a place which I had never been to.

例:I had just finished my work then.(我那時剛完成工作

例:I was hungry because I hadn’t had breakfast.

例:When we received the letter, he had been ill for two weeks.

例:He said that he had seen it once.(他說他曾看過一次)

例:He told me that my exercise had been done very carelessly.

例:The house had been burned down when the fireman arrived.

例:They couldn’t figure out(想出來) [what had happened in the school campus] until the police arrived.

注意:兩件事情都發生在過去,必須依故事情節區分兩者時態,較早發生過去簡單式;較晚發生用過去完成式
 過去完成進行式:表示動作或狀態持續至過去某時,且當時依然持續進行。

  主動態:had+been+Ving

  被動態:無

例:Before the game was over, the man had been preparing for the test for at least two hours.

例:Before I got the ticket fine from traffic police, my alert in driving had been deteriorating; however, the defeat awoke me, and my attention was better after that.


三、未來式

 未來簡單式:表示未來將發生的動作或狀態,請區別現在進行式的用法(表示不久後會發生的事)。

  主動態willV原形

  被動態willbe+Vpp

※注意:Iwe可用主動詞shall(will可和shall互換)

例:I shall be fifteen years old next month.

例:We shall not be able to go.

例:She will not be there.

例:I shall be punished by John.

┌例:Will all the bananas be sold abroad?
└例:Will they be invited to the party next week?
   助 主  主動
 未來進行式:表示未來「某時」會進行的動作

  主動態:will+be+Ving

  被動態:will+be+beingVpp(通常不使用)

例:He will be travelling on the train this time tomorrow.

例:The theater will be getting better by then.(到那時)

例:Will he be going to the party?
 未來完成式:關鍵在於動作經驗將會截止於未來某個時間點。

  主動態:will+have+Vpp

  被動態:will+have+been+Vpp

例:He will have finished his work by six o'clock.

例:We shall have lived here for five years by the end of the year.

例:If I read this book once, I will have read it ten times.

例:The work will have been finished by then.(到那時)

例:Everything will have been eaten by the time we get there.

注意:表示未來時間或條件的副詞子句中,須用現在完成式代替未來完成式

例:I'll stay here until you have finished your work.

例:When you have finished four thousand English words,you will be able to read a newspaper.

注意:未來完成式可以表是對過去事件的推測

例:That book will have been read by the students already.(我想那些學生已經讀過這本書了
 未來完成進行式:從過去某時開始的動作或經驗,現在仍然進行,而於未來某時將完成的時態。

  主動態:will+have+been+Ving

  被動態:無

例:By June, we shall have been learning English for three years.

例:If it rains tomorrow, it will have been raining for a week.

例:Before the end of the semester, I will have been attending the well-known private school for one and half year; however, I am convinced that I will need to take a longer time for the completion of my study after the end of next semester.

注意:未來完成進行式可以表達對過去已經持續一段時間動作推測

例:Hello, I am sorry to be late. You will have been waiting for some time.
  (I suppose [that you have been waiting for me some time].)
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